Whitetail Winter

deer hunting property
On hunting property in Western Virginia, yellow poplar buds are a favorite winter deer browse.  If you look closely at this picture, you can see the buds nipped off every sapling.

A huge misconception in the whitetail woods is that the colder the temperature, the more deer move. While this is true for other mammals, this is not always the case for deer. Deer simply move less during frigid temperatures to conserve much needed calories which can be the difference between survival and starvation. Nutritious food is scarce during the winter and the deer’s metabolism actually slows down significantly to help retain energy needed to keep the body warm. Deer also tend to move more during the daylight hours during colder temperatures, enabling them to conserve more energy by bedding down through the night and moving during the day when temperatures rise, even if it is just a few degrees.

While deer movement comes to a near standstill during cold snaps, where they are spending their time does change. A general rule for finding deer during the winter is to simply follow the sun. This means that South facing slopes, predominantly those facing Southeast and Southwest will receive the most deer activity. South facing slopes receive the most sunlight throughout the course of the day thus making these areas warmer and more appealing to deer. Also by receiving more sunlight, these areas commonly produce the most vegetation and browse.

whitetail deer
A heavy snowfall didn’t keep these does from filling their stomachs in early February. These does digging through the snow in an open field are in search of some cool season grasses.

Which brings us to the basis of this article; what do deer eat during the winter? To the uninitiated person walking through the woods in January and February, one might wonder how any deer survive the winter. With the acorns gone, food plots exhausted and agricultural crops harvested, it seems that every deer would starve to death. On the contrary, Mother Nature, perfect in her form, provides enough browse to support a deer herd even during the winter months.

When we think of winter deer browse in any hunting area, the first thing that comes to mind is coniferous trees like Pine, Cedar or Spruce. White cedar is a highly preferred winter whitetail food, not so much because of its nutritious value, but because of its digestibility. A deer instinctively knows what foods are easiest to digest, and what foods to avoid until starvation becomes a realistic possibility. In recent findings on deer food sources, researchers have discovered that when provided a buffet style feeding program, deer actually prefer foods of less nutritional value over those that offer the most. Again, this was because those foods with the most nutritional value may not have been the easiest to digest. This could also be attributed to their decreased metabolism coinciding with the lack of food available. With little food available deer cannot spend important calories breaking down less palatable food to extract better nutrients when food that is easier to digest is available.

yearling buck
This yearling buck happened upon some tasty wild grapes. There is something for the whitetail to eat around every corner in the deer woods.

Earlier in the article we mentioned that during the winter, deer activity decreases, but they will change where they spend the majority of their time. The same applies to winter food sources. Clearcuts or any disturbed areas provide excellent browse when all other food is scarce. Red maple, winged sumac, white pine, greenbrier, dogwood, wild grapes, Japanese Honeysuckle, wild rose and American beech are amongst those wild plants that see regular browsing on each winter. Many deer hunters once believed that Mountain Laurel and Rhododendron make good winter deer food. This is not the case, again because they are less palatable than other available foods. Researchers have also documented having found deer that have died of starvation only to find their paunches full of Mountain Laurel or Rhododendron.

whitetail deer
After over 50 inches of snow and sleet in December and January and below average temperatures, this doe still appears to be in fine physical condition.  The whitetail deer, what an amazing species!

While it is certainly not possible to create large areas with good deer browse in the dead of winter, you can create deer food with the help of a chainsaw. If you use firewood to heat your home, then you have even greater incentive to feed the deer. Cutting trees and leaving the tops will not only create winter deer food, but you’ll also be creating some ideal bedding cover in the process. Cutting some species of trees for food now, may also create some food in the future. Species such as red maple and yellow-poplar are prolific “stump sprouters”; meaning that when the tree is harvested several shoots and saplings will sprout from the trunk providing excellent browse in the future.

The whitetail deer is an extremely adaptive animal. The fact that it has learned to not only coexist with humans, but thrive alongside them is remarkable. Nevertheless, during the dead of winter when it seems that the species may be living in peril, whitetails have evolved into a finely tuned winter weather machine.

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